Brain drain
Brain drain

1 – for 10 million African-born emigrants, the word “home” is synonymous with the United States, Britain or Other country outside of Africa. Ten million Africans now constitute an invisible nation that resides outside Africa. Although invisible, it is a nation as populous as Angola, Malawi, Zambia or Zimbabwe. If it were to be a nation with distinct borders, it would have an income roughly equivalent to Africa’s gross domestic product.

 

2 – What few realize is that Africans who immigrate to the United States contribute 40 times more wealth to the American than to the African economy. According to the United Nations, an African professional working in the United States contributes about $150,000 per year to the U.S. economy. If you do the math, you will realize that the African professional remitting $300 per month to Africa is contributing 40 times more to the United States economy than to the African one.
3 – Of course, the issue more important than facts and figures is eliminating poverty in Africa, not merely reducing it by sending money to relatives. Money alone cannot eliminate poverty in Africa, because even one million dollars is a number with no intrinsic value. Real wealth cannot be measured by money, yet we often confuse money with wealth. Under the current situation, Africa would still remain poor even if we were to send all the money in the world there.brain drain
4 – When you give your money to your doctor, that physician helps you convert your money into health. Money Cannot teach your children. Teachers can. Money cannot bring electricity to your home. Engineers can. Because it is only a nation’s human capital that can be converted into real wealth, that human capital is much more valuable than its financial capital.
5 – A recent World Bank survey shows that African universities are exporting a large percentage of their Graduating Manpower to the United States. We can reasonably conclude that African universities are in reality serving the American people, not Africa. Similarly, the best African musicians live in France. The top African writers live in the United States or Britain. The African soccer superstars live in Europe. It will be impossible to achieve a renaissance without the contributions of the talented. Our African homelands have paid an extraordinary price ‎for their lack of domestic technological knowledge. Knowledge is the engine that drives economic growth, and ‎Africa cannot eliminate poverty without first increasing and nurturing its intellectual capital.‎

I – Comprehension (7.5 points)

A / The main purpose of the writer is to show how (0.5 point)
1 – African intellectuals contribute to other countries development.
2 – To eliminate poverty from Africa.
3 – Negative is brain drain to African countries.

B / Are these statements true or false? Justify. (3 points)
1 – There is a large amount of Africans not living in Africa.
………………………………………………………………….
2 – Skilled workers living in USA send money ‎to their host countries.
………………………………………………………………
3 – Eliminating poverty in Africa is very important.
…………………………………………………………….

C. Answer the following questions from the text (3 points)
1. According to the writer, who benefits more from the African emigrants: their original country or the country that receives them? Explain.
…………………………………………………………………………
2. Why is the human capital more important than the financial capital?
…………………………………………………………………………
3. How do African universities serve the American people?
…………………………………………………………………………

D. What do these words refer to? (1 point)
1. One (paragraph 2): …………………………
2. There (paragraph 3): ……………………………….

II – Language (7.5 points)

A – Rewrite the sentences with the words given ‎(3 points)
1 – She didn’t bring her umbrella so she became wet. ‎
If _______________________________________
2 -‎“Where did you study when you were a child?”‎
Mr. Smith asked me________________________
3 – We got lost because we didn’t take a map.‎
We regret _______________________________

B- Give the correct form of the words between brackets. (1.5 points)
1. I finally got a job. I now feel (independence) ………………………………. of my parents.
2. The city council has made the necessary (arrange) ………………………………. for the summer festival.
3. Brain drain is the (immigrate) …………………… of highly skilled professionals.

C- Join the sentences with the words given (3 points)
1 – His marks are very low. He is having extra lessons (since)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2 – He is an actor. He was killed in a car crash‎. (who)
……………………………………….
3 – Ann’s father works for an international company. It does business with African countries.‎ (which)
……………………………………….

III – Writing. (5 points)
Brain drain is a real problem for the countries of origins. Write a formal letter to a magazine in which you explain why these people immigrate and suggest solutions to encourage them to stay in their countries.


KEY ANSWERS TO “BRAIN DRAIN”

I – Comprehension (7.5 points)

A / The main purpose of the writer is to show how (0.5 point)
1 – African intellectuals contribute to other countries development.
2 – To eliminate poverty from Africa.
3 – Negative is brain drain to African countries.

B / Are these statements true or false? Justify. (3 points)
1 – There is a large amount of Africans not living in Africa.
True . ” for 10 million African -born emigrants,……..outside of Africa”
2 – Skilled workers living in USA send money ‎to their host countries.
True . ” by sending money to relatives
3 – Eliminating poverty in Africa is very important.
True . “the issue more important than facts and figures is eliminating poverty in Africa”

C. Answer the following questions from the text (3 points)
1. According to the writer, who benefits more from the African emigrants: their original country or the country that receives them? Explain.
It is the country that receives them , because they contribute to its economy.
2. Why is the human capital more important than the financial capital?
Because it is only a nation’s human capital that can be converted into real wealth
3. How do African universities serve the American people?
By exporting a large percentage of their Graduating Manpower to the United States.

D. What do these words refer to? (1 point)
1. One (paragraph 2): economy
2. There (paragraph 3): Africa

II – Language (7.5 points)

A – Rewrite the sentences with the words given ‎(3 points)
1 – She didn’t bring her umbrella so she became wet. ‎
If she had brought her umbrella she wouldn’t have become wet .
2 -‎“Where did you study when you were a child?”‎
Mr. Smith asked me where I had studied when I had been a child .
3 – We got lost because we didn’t take a map.‎
We regret we hadn’t taken a map .

B- Give the correct form of the words between brackets. (1.5 points)
1. I finally got a job. I now feel (independence) independent of my parents.
2. The city council has made the necessary (arrange) arrangement for the summer festival.
3. Brain drain is the (immigrate) immigration of highly skilled professionals.

C- Join the sentences with the words given (3 points)
1 – His marks are very low. He is having extra lessons (since)
He is having extra lessons since his marks are very low 
2 – He is an actor. He was killed in a car crash. (who)
He is the actor who was killed in a car crash.
3 – Ann’s father works for an international company. It does business with African countries.‎ (which)
Ann’s father works for an international company which  does business with African countries.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here