Reported speech
Reported speech

 

The Reported speech

  • A speech can be divided into direct and indirect .

“they are building a new school here “ => direct speech

He said that they were building a new school there .   => indirect speech

  • It can also be divided into :

1 – Statement: “they have just finished the exam “

2 – Question   : “what were you doing when they came? “

“Have you finished the exercise? “

3 – Command: “stop teasing me “

“You must not smoke here “

“ you needn’t come “

  • If the reporting verb is in present simple , present perfect or future simple then we report the sentence as it is . In other words , we make no changes .

Ex : “they will move from here next week “

He says / is saying /will say that they will move from here next week

 But if the reporting verb is in simple past then certain changes are necessary. These changes affect :

  • Verbs
  • Pronouns ( I , you …. My ,your …., mine , their …..)
  • Time indications ( yesterday , tomorrow , now , next ……)
  • Place indications ( here , there , this place …..)

NB :  these changes take place when the reporting verb is in simple past  and they are applied to : statements , questions and command

Direct

Indirect

 

 

 

 

 

Verb tenses

And modals

1.    present Simple

2.    present continuous

3.    present perfect

4.    past simple

5.    past continuous

6.    past perfect

7.    will

8.     can

9.    may

10.  shall

11. must, have to .

1.     past simple

2.     past continuous

3.     past perfect

4.     past perfect

5.     past perfect continuous

6.     past perfect

7.     Would

8.     could

9.     might

10.  should

11. had to .

 

 

 

Time and place

indication

1.         Today

2.         Yesterday

3.         The day before yesterday

4.         Tomorrow

5.         The day after tomorrow

6.         Next week, year….

7.         Last week, year….

8.         A day/weak/month/year… ago

9.         Here

10.      This place / city ….

1.    That day

2.    The day before

3.    Two days before

4.    The next/following/coming day

5.    In two days’ time

6.    The following week , year….

7.    The previous week , year …

8.    A day before / the previous week

9.    There

10. That place / city …

 

 

 

Pronouns

The changing of pronouns depend on who is speaking . notice the two examples below :

1.  “ I am not leaving with you” Katherine said to her

Suppose that Katherine reported her statement . then :

I said to her that I was not leaving with her

But suppose that Bill reported Katherine’ statement then :

Bill said that she was not leaving with her  

 

  • Statements

Direct speech  : “ I saw her the day before yesterday, here “ he said

Indirect speech  :  he said that he had seen her two days before , there .

  • Questions

1 – Wh –questions : ( these are questions that begin with a wh-word :what,where….)

Direct speech : “ where is she going ?”

Indirect speech :  she asked where she was going .

Notice : – the question mark is omitted .

  • The interrogative form of the verb becomes affirmative :

Where is she => where she was

2- Yes/no questions ( these are questions that their answers are either yes or no)

Direct speech : “ will you participate in the ceremony?” Kamal asked me

Indirect speech : he wondered if /whether if /whether I would participate in the ceremony .

Notice : – the question mark is omitted .

  • The interrogative form of the verb becomes affirmative :

Will you participate => I would participate

  • Command

1 – Direct speech : “revise your lessons” the mother said to her son .

Indirect speech : the mother ordered her son to revise his lessons .

2 – Direct speech : “ don’t smoke here “ said the doctor

In Direct speech :he ordered him not to smoke there

Notice  : in the indirect speech :

Affirmative  :   reporting verb + pronoun + verb (infinitive)

Negative     :   reporting verb + pronoun +  not + verb (infinitive)

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To practice some exercises about this lesson click here

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