Types of education
Types of education

 

1 – Numerous definitions exist. Some of the older ones are some of the better ones. For me education means learning knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The most important of these is learning how to learn. Learning means deciding about your own lifestyle. Teaching, by itself, does not constitute learning; neither does passive listening. Learner’s must decide to incorporate any knowledge, skill or attitude into their own set of values and behaviors (lifestyle), or the learning is not meaningful. Learning happens outside the classroom as well as within. Some learning results from teachers and some does not. Some learning is intended  some is accidental.

Three types of education

2 – Most of the general population assumes that education and schooling are interchangeable terms. Many educators seem to feel that any education that happens outside school is somehow inferior, usually dubious, and certainly uncontrolled. Other educators point out that learning takes place inside and outside of classrooms. I believe that learning occurs in formal, non-formal, and informal educational settings and that the learning experience can be equally powerful in each of those settings.

3 – Formal education is properly associated with schools. A more precise definition is by Coombs(1973), “the hierarchically structured, chronologically graded educational system running from primary school through the university and including, in addition to general academic studies, a variety of specialized programs and institutions for full-time technical and professional training”.

4 – Non-formal (NFE) has been defined (Kleis. 1973. p. 6) as any intentional and systematic educational program (usually outside of traditional schooling) in which content is adapted to the unique needs of the students (or unique situations) in order to maximize learning and minimize other elements which often occupy formal school teachers. Non-formal education is more learner-centered than most formal education. It has to be. Learners can leave anytime they are not types of educationmotivated. NFE tends to emphasize a cafeteria-curriculum (options, choices) rather than the prescribed, sequential-curriculum found in schools. In NFE human relationships are more informal (roles of teachers and students are less rigid and often switch) than in schools where student-teacher and teacher-administrator roles are hierarchical and seldom change in the short-term. NFE focuses on practical skills and knowledge while schools often focus on information which may have delayed application. Overall NFE has a lower level of structure (and therefore more flexibility) than schools.

5 – Even less structured is informal education which deals with everyday experiences which are not planned or organized (incidental learning). When these experiences are interpreted or explained by elders or peers they constitute informal education (Kleis. 1973.).

6 – Some examples will help clarify formal, non-formal, and informal education. Formal education occurs in a typical public high school classroom. Non-formal education occurs with such organizations as evening classes or vocational training workshops which are less structured than schools, allowing youth more choices, providing less curricular sequencing, and enforcing it even less. Learning is controlled by the learners who may drop out any time without penalties. As a result educators must emphasize those skills, knowledge, and attitudes which are desired by the learners. Content is more practical, therefore, and responsibility for discipline shifts from teacher to learner. An example of informal education is when infants and young children are learning to speak. They learn by listening and imitating. Their trial and error efforts are augmented by parents, siblings, and friends who encourage correct sounds and spontaneously correct errors.

7 – Extension education is non-formal education with only a few exceptions. Although extension agents may take advantage of learning opportunities which arise serendipitously, to call extension work “informal education” is inaccurate.A secondary vocational agriculture program is difficult to fit into one of the three categories because it has elements of all three. Work in class which is tested and graded is typical of formal education. Much of the FFA and supervised occupational experience activities are typical of non-formal education.When students’ everyday experiences are interpreted and augmented by their peers or parents this is typical of informal education. All three types of education provide powerful learning opportunities. The most effective teacher is one who allows and helps learning to take place during situations which fit all three types of education. This may be done intentionally or instinctively.

8 – While formal and non-formal education are different, they are not opposites. Both emphasize organized and intentional learning. Both involve structure, professional educators, and choices by learners. Responsibility for learning is shared among educators and learners. The differences are more a matter of degree in each of these types of education.

I – Comprehension
   1- Answer these questions from the text
A – What does education means for the writer?
……………………………………………..
B – What do learners have to do in order that their learning is meaningful?
……………………………………………..
C – Where does non-formal education take place?
……………………………………………..
D- When does experience become informal education?
……………………………………………..
E- Where does formal education takes place?
……………………………………………..
F- According to the writer, who is the successful teacher?
……………………………………………..

   2- Are these sentences true or false (2 points)
A formal and non-formal education are opposites
…………………………………………
B – Non-formal education focuses more on the teacher
…………………………………………
C – Learners in non-formal education must not drop out
…………………………………………
D – Secondary vocational agriculture school involves all types of educations
…………………………………………

   3- Find in the text words which means almost the same as
A – Teachers (paragraph 2) :……………
B – Insists (paragraph 4): ……………
C – Education that take place in everyday life (paragraph 5) : …………….

II – Grammar
   1- Put the verbs into the right form (gerund or infinitive)
A – You ought (revise) ………………………. your lessons before you come to class
D- He used (smoke) ……………………. but now he stopped
B- Would you mind (take) …………………..that bag to Emily
C- He was used (eat) ……………………… lots of chocolates
D- Students have (respect) ………………… the school rules

   2- Change the verbs to the past (perfect or simple )
A – Jill (phone) …………….. her dad at work before she (leave) …………. for the trip
B -the secretary (type) ……………. the documents, before she (send) ……………them by fax.
C – The man (not/feed) ……………… the cat after he (come) ………….. home.
D – when I (see) ……………the movie, I (already/do) ……………….. my home work.
E – After Fred (spend) ……………… his holiday in Italy, he (want) ……………… to learn Italian.
F – He (not/have) ………………… a nice mark in the test , because he (be) ………………… always absent.
G – he (already/hide) ………………….. the printer , when he (leave) …………………the office.
H – Before he (retire) ……………. he (work) ……………… for many companies

III-Functions
   4- What do these sentences express
A – “Do you mean….?”      ………………………………
B – “I am afraid but I can’t do it”    …………………………………
A – “I didn’t quite see what you’re getting at”   ……………………………………..
B – “Could you close the door please”    ………………………………..


 KEY ANSWERS

I – Comprehension

   1- Answer these questions from the text

A – What does education means for the writer?
education means learning knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The most important of these is learning how to learn.
B – What do learners have to do in order that their learning is meaningful?
Learners must decide to incorporate any knowledge, skill or attitude into their own set of values and behaviors (lifestyle)
C – Where does non-formal education take place?
usually outside of traditional schooling OR in evening classes or vocational training workshops
D- When does experience become informal education?
When these experiences are interpreted or explained by elders or peers they constitute informal education
E- Where does formal education takes place?
Formal education occurs in a typical public high school classroom
F- According to the writer, who is the successful teacher?
The most effective teacher is one who allows and helps learning to take place during situations which fit all three types of education.

   2- Are these sentences true or false (2 points)
A -formal and non-formal education are opposites
false .” While formal and non-formal education are different, they are not opposites”
A – Non-formal education focuses more on the teacher
false . ” . Non-formal education is more learner-centered”
B – Learners in non-formal education must not drop out
False . Learners can leave anytime they are not motivated
B – Secondary vocational agriculture school involves all types of educations
True . “it has elements of all three”

   3- Find in the text words which means almost the same as
A – Teachers (paragraph 2) : educators
A – Insists (paragraph 4):  focuses
B – Education that take place in everyday life (paragraph 5) : informal education

II – Grammar

   1-Put the verbs into the right form (gerund or infinitive)
A – You ought (revise) to revise your lessons before you come to class
D- He used (smoke) to smoke but now he stopped
B- Would you mind (take) taking that bag to Emily
C- He was used (eat) to eating lots of chocolates
D- Students have (respect) to respect the school rules

   2- Change the verbs to the past (perfect or simple )
A – Jill (phone) had phoned her dad at work before she (leave) left for the trip
B – the secretary (type) had typed the documents, before she (send) sent them by fax.
C – The man (not/feed) didn’t fed the cat after he (come) had come home.
D – when I (see) saw the movie, I (already/do) had already done my home work.
A – After Fred (spend) had spent his holiday in Italy, he (want) wanted to learn Italian.
B – He (not/have) didn’t have a nice mark in the test , because he (be) had been always absent.
C – he (already/hide) had already hidden the printer , when he (leave) left the office.
D – Before he (retire) retired he (work) had worked for many companies.

   4- What do these sentences express
A – “Do you mean….?”      asking for clarification.
B – “I am afraid but I can’t do it”    declining request.
A – “I didn’t quite see what you’re getting at”   expressing lack of understanding.
B – “Could you close the door please”    making request.

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