writing academic english 4th edition
writing academic english 4th edition

Preface

Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive rhetoric and sentence
structure textbook/workbook for high-intermediate to advanced English language
learners who are in college or are college bound. The book teaches writing in a
straightforward manner, using a step-by-step approach. Clear, relevant models illustrate each step, and varied practices reinforce each lesson.
The first part of the book provides a quick review of paragraph writing and summarizing, followed by a chapter that introduces the essay. The second part of the book offers comprehensive chapters on the process, cause/effect, comparison/contrast, and argumentative essays. Sentence structure, with special emphasis on subordinated structures, is taught in the third part of the book.
Throughout the book, models and practices feature general academic topics that
are timely and relevant to students living in a rapidly changing world. In addition,
readings from current, real-world publications conclude the chapters on different
essay forms. Most chapters offer a variety of writing assignments, and each chapter
ends with a review of the main teaching points.
Appendices explain the writing process; give punctuation rules; show charts of
connecting words, transition signals, and editing symbols; and teach students basic
research and documentation skills. Self-editing and peer-editing worksheets and
model scoring rubrics are also provided. References to the appendices appear within
the chapters where students are likely to benefit most from using this material.

PART I – WRITING A PARAGRAPH

Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. :2
The Three Parts of a Paragraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
The Topic Sentence -. . . . . . . .. 4
Position of Topic Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 5
The Two Parts of a Topic Sentence . . . . . . . . . .. 9
Supporting Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … 11
The Concluding Sentence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Review , 16
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Chapter :2 Unity and Coherence 18
Unity ” 18
Coherence 21
Repetition of Key Nouns 22
Key Noun Substitutes’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Consistent Pronouns ‘. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24
Transition Signals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Review 36
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … 37
Chapter 3 Supporting Details: Facts, Quotations, and Statistics 39
Facts versus Opinions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … 39
Using Outside Sources 41
Plagiarism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Citing Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42
Quotations “. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 42
Direct Quotations 42
Reporting Verbs and Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 43
Punctuating Direct Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Indirect Quotations 47
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Statistics -. . . . . . . . .. 51
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Review…….. .. 54

PART II WRITING AN ESSAY………………… 55

Chapter 4 From Paragraph to Essay. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
The Three Parts of an Essay . . . . . . .. . . . . 56
The Introductory Paragraph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Funnel Introduction . . . . . . .. . . . . 60
Attention-Getting Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61
Thesis statement. . . . . . .. . . . . t 63
Body Paragraphs. . . . . . .. . . . . 64
Logical Division of Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 64
Thesis Statements for Logical Division of Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 65
Thesis Statement Pitfalls . . . . . . .. . . . . 67
Transition Signals between Paragraphs 69
The Concluding Paragraph . . . . . . .. . . . . 72
Essay Outlining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Review. . . . . . .. . . . . 77
Writing Practice 78
Applying What You Have Learned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 78
Reading . . . . . . .. . . . . 79
Questions . . . . . . .. . . . . 80
Suggestions for Discussion or Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80
Chapter 5 Chronological Order: Process Essays. . . . . . . . . . . .. 81
Thesis Statements for a Process Essay 84
Transition Signals for Chronological Order 86
Review. . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 88
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 89
Applying What You Have Learned 89
Reading 1 89
Questions 90
Suggestions for discussion or Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
Reading 2 92
Questions 92
Suggestions for Discussion or Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 93
Chapter 6 Cause/Effect Essays 94
Organization for Cause/Effect Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 95
Block Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 95
Chain Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 98
Cause/Effect Signal Words and Phrases 101
Cause Signal Words ” 101
Effect Signal Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 102
Review , . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . .. 105
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . … 105
Applying What You Have Learned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 108
Suggestions for Discussion or Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 110
Chapter 7 Comparison/Contrast Essays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 111
Organization of Comparison/Contrast Essays. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 113
Point-by-Point Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Block Organization ‘ 114
Comparison and Contrast Signal Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 116
Comparison Signal Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Contrast Signal Words 119
Review , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 122
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 123
Applying What You Have Learned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 124
Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 126
Suggestions for Discussion or Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 126
Chapter 8 Paraphrase and Summary……………………..127

Paraphrasing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 127
Plagiarism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 128
Using Paraphrases as Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 135
Summarizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 136
Review. … . .. .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . … . . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. 141
Chapter 9 Argumentative Essays 142
Organization of Argumentative Essays . . . . . . . … 143
The Introductory Paragraph. . . . . . . . . . . . … 147
Thesis Statement. . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . .. 147
Review. ” . ” , , . .. . . . . . . . . .. 150
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 150
Applying What You Have Learned . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 151
Topic 1, Reading 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 151
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 153
Topic 1, Reading 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 154
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 155
Topic 2, Reading 1 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 156
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 157
Topic 2, Reading 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 158
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 160

PART III SENTENCE STRUCTURE . …………. 161

Chapter 10 Types of Sentences 162
Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 162
Independent Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 163
Dependent Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 163
Kinds of Sentences 164
Simple Sentences 164
Compound Sentences . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 165
Complex Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 172
Compound-Complex Sentences …. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 174
Sentence Types and Writing Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 175
Review ” ” . . . . . . . . .. 177
Chapter 11 Using Parallel Structures and Fixing Sentence Problems………179
Parallelism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 179
Parallelism with Coordinators: And, Or, But. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 180
Parallelism with Correlative (Paired) Conjunctions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 181
Sentence Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 183
Sentence Fragments 183
Choppy Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 185
Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 188
Stringy Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 190
Review ” ‘” ‘” , .. 191
Editing Practice 193
Chapter 12 Noun Clauses 194
That Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 195
Sentences Beginning with It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 196
Special Verb Tenses in That Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 198
If/Whether Clauses ” 201
Question Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 204
Review ” 206
Editing Practice 207
Writing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 208
Chapter 13 Adverb Clauses 210
Kinds of Adverb Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 211
Punctuation of Adverb Clauses 211
Time Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 211
Place Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 213
Distance, Frequency, and Manner Clauses . . . .  . . . . . . . .. 214
Reason Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 216
Result Clauses 218
Purpose Clauses 220
Contrast Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 222
Direct Opposition Clauses . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .. 222
Concession (Unexpected Result) Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 223
Conditional Clauses 225
Review……. .. . .. .. . . .. 227
Editing Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 228
Writing Practice 229
Chapter 14 Adjective Clauses 230
Relative Pronouns and Adverbs 231
Position of Adjective Clauses 231
Verb Agreement in Adjective Clauses < .. 232
Kinds of Adjective Clauses. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 234
Relative Pronouns as Subjects . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 234
Relative Pronouns as Objects 236
Possessive Adjective Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .. 238
Relative Pronouns as Objects of Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 240
Relative Pronouns in Phrases of Quantity and Quality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 243
Adjective Clauses of Time and Place 244
Review……. . .. 247
Editing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 248
Writing Practice :………………… 249
Chapter 15 Participial Phrases 250
Participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .. 250
participial Phrases . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 251
Reduced Adjective Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 252
Position and Punctuation of Participial Phrases 252
General Form -ing participial Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 253
General Form -ed Participial Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 254
Perfect Form Participial Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 255
Participial Phrases and Writing Style. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 257
Reduced Adverb Clauses 258
Review. . .. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 261
Editing Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 263
Writing Practice 263

Appendix A: The Process of Academic Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 265
The Writing Process, Step 1: Creating (Prewriting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 265
The Writing Process, Step 2: Planning (Outlining) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 271
The Writing Process, Step 3: Writing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 272
The Writing Process, Step 4: Polishing. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 273
Editing Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 277
Appendix B: Punctuation Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 280
Commas 280
Semicolons 283
Colons , . . . . . . .. 285
Quotation Marks .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 288
Editing Practice . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 289
Appendix C: Charts of Connecting Words and Transition Signals 291
Coordinating Words. . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 291
Subordinating Words …. ‘.’ . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 292
I Conjunctive Adverbs . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 295
Transition Signals 297
Appendix D: Editing Symbols 300
Appendix E: Research and Documentation of Sources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 303
Types of Sources . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 303
Evaluating Sources 304
Documentation of Sources 306
In-Text Citations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 306
Works-Cited Lists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 308
Appendix F: Self-Editing and Peer-Editing Worksheets 313
Scoring Rubrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 315
Index 331
Credits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 337

Click here to download Writing_Academic_English

Download Key answers to Writing Academic English 

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here