Ticket 2 English Unit 9: Advances in Science

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Science and technology
Science and technology

Vocabulary

The differences between science and technology

ScienceFocuses on general knowledge, it is the process of producing knowledge via observations and investigating natural phenomena. Examples: math, physics chemistry, astronomy ……
TechnologyApplied science is the ability to change the world with materials, it is practical. Examples: robotics, biotechnology, communication, engineering ……

Functions: Expressing Certainty and Uncertainty

Certainty is the state of being sure about something. It’s when you have no doubt about it.

Uncertainty is the antonym on certainty. It is when you are unsure or doubtful about something .

How to Express Certainty

  • To be certain about…………
  • To be sure about………….
  • To strongly believe that………..
  • It goes without saying.
  • to be convinced of……………
  • To have no doubt about it.
  • To have no doubt about………
  • Without a doubt, ………………….
  • It’s obvious that………….
  • The modal verb ‘Must’ also expresses Certainty.

How to Express Uncertainty

  • To be not certain about………
  • To be not sure about…….
  • To strongly not believe that………
  • To have doubt about…………
  • To doubt that………
  • To be in two minds about ………….
  • The modal verb ‘May and might’ also express Uncertainty.
  • To feel uncertain about………
  • Perhaps.

Examples on how to express certainty and Uncertainty

Speaker 1: Sohayb is a hardworking student.
Speaker 2: Yes, I am sure/certain that he will have a good grade. (certainty)

Speaker 1: I strongly believe that our local football team will win the match (certainty)
Speaker 2: With their actual level, I doubt it / I feel uncertain about it. (uncertainty)

Speaker 1: Do you think that Hillary Clinton will be the president of the USA
Speaker 2: I am in two minds about that. (uncertainty)
Speaker 1: Well, it goes without saying that she will win the elections. (certainty)

Grammar: Conditional 3 / wishes

I. Conditional type 3

‎[If + Subject + Verb (past perfect) + complement]
[subject + would + verb (present perfect) + complement]‎

  • If she had taken her umbrella, she wouldn’t have gotten wet
  • Tom would have had better marks if he had revised his lesson.

‎ Example ‎
‎ Source sentence: I didn’t play sports, I was fat.‎
‎ Target sentence: If I had played sports, I wouldn’t have been fat.

The use of conditional type 3

when we use the conditional type 3 we are referring to an impossible situation in the past. We wish the opposite of that situation.

last month Ann was sick. Her friend Joan didn’t know this, and she didn’t go to see her. They met again after Ann got better.
Joan said :
If I had known that you were sick, I would have gone to see you.
this means, that in reality, Joan didn’t know Ann was sick that why she said: “if I had known….”
and she didn’t go to see her.

II. Wishes:

Steps to follow :

  • We look at the verb in the source sentence, if it is in the simple present then we change it to the simple past and if it is in the past we change it to the past perfect

Present wish :

It is a situation in the present that we don’t like or we like to have it the other way.

Tom lives far from school so he usually arrives late.

Tom: I wish I didn’t live far from the school. If only I didn’t live far from the school.

Source sentence: I don’t play sports , I am fat.

Target sentence: If only I played sports / I wish I played sports

   Past wish:

It is a situation in the present that we don’t like or we like to have it the other way.

Tom had an accident because he drove very fast. If only he hadn’t driven very fast orTom wishes he hadn’t driven very fast.

TIP: Look at the verb, if it is affirmative then change it to negative and if it is negative change it to affirmative.

Source sentence: I didn’t play sports , I was fat .

Target sentence: If only I had played sports . / I wish I had played sports

Writing: Advantages and Disadvantages Essay

It has the same structure as the Cause/Effect essay. Just change the word causes with advantages and the word effects with disadvantages.

IIntroduction

Explanation of the issue

IIBody

  • Paragraph one: Advantages
  • 1st advantage.
  • 2nd advantage.
  • 3rd advantage.
  • Paragraph two: disadvantages
  • First disadvantage.
  • Second disadvantage.
  • Third disadvantage.

III. Conclusion

State a summary of your point of view.

—————————–

I. Introduction

…………………………. is a great invention that has numerous advantages. yet there are many disadvantages too. So what are the positive and negative sides of ……………….

II. Body

There are is no doubt that ……………………………………………  (the subject you are discussing) ……………. has many advantages….. To begin with, …………………………(1st advantage)…………………………………………. Next, ……………………………………………….(2nd advantage )…………………….. In addition to this, …………………………(3rd advantage)………...On the other hand, it has disadvantages too.………..(1stdisadvantages)…………………………. Secondly, ……………..(2nd disadvantages)………..Thirdly, ………………………….(3rd disadvantages)…………………………….

III. Conclusion

As mentioned before, ………………..(your subject matter)……….has many disadvantages on …………………………. Hence there are numbers of measures to be taken urgently. First………….second………………finally……………………..

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