Ticket 2 English Unit 9: Advances in science

Science and technology
Science and technology

Ticket 2 English Unit: 9 Advances in science

Vocabulary related to the unit

The differences between science and technology

Science Focuses on general knowledge , it is the process of producing knowledge via observations and investigating natural phenomena . Examples: math , physics chemistry , astronomy ……
Technology Applied science, it is the ability to change the world with materials, it is practical. Examples: robotics , biotechnology , communication , engineering ……

Functions: Expressing certainty and uncertainty

Certainty is the state of being sure about something.It’s when you have no doubt about it.

Uncertainty is the antonym on certainty .It is when you are unsure or doubtful about something .

certainty uncertainty
  • Undoubtedly
  • It is crystal clear
  • No one can deny
  • Will not be
  • To be sure
  • Certainly
  • Must
  • I doubt ‎
  • May + verb ‎
  • Guess + verb ‎
  • Probably ‎
  • Think ‎
  • Assume ‎
  • Can ‎

Grammar: Conditional 3 / wishes

  1. Conditional type 3

‎[If + Subject + Verb (past perfect) + complement] + [subject + would + verb (present perfect) + complement]‎

‎ Example ‎
‎ Source sentence : I didn’t play sports , I was fat .‎
‎ Target sentence : If I had played sports , I wouldn’t have been fat ‎.

II.Wishes :

Steps to follow :

  • We look at the verb in the source sentence , if it is in simple present then we change it to the simple past and if it is in the past we change it to the past perfect

Present wish :

Source sentence: I don’t play sports , I am fat

Target sentence: If only   I played sports / I wish I played sports


   Past wish :

Source sentence: I didn’t play sports , I was fat .

Target sentence: If only I had played sports . / I wish I had played sports



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