Cultural issues
Cultural issues

 Unit 2 – gateway 2 (Cultural issues and values): Vocabulary

Value Meaning


2. Altruism


4. Initiative

5. Tolerance

6. Intolerance



9. Equity

10. Diversity

11. stereotype

1. The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.

2. Selflessness, generosity and kindness.

3. The set of rights and duties.

4. The ability or opportunity to act before others do.

5. The ability to accept and respect the opinions and beliefs of others.

6. Unwillingness to accept views, beliefs, or behaviour that differ from one’s own.

7. The ability to live together in harmony.

8. Participating and working together towards the same end or objective.

9. Equal treatment to anyone.

10. Showing a great deal of variety; very different.

11. A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person.

Compound adjectives

Compound adjectives are adjectives made up of two or more words usually with hyphens (-) between them. In general we put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want them to act as a single idea (adjective) that describes something.

  • a well-known writer
  • a brightly-lit room
  • deeply-rooted traditions
  • a good-looking boy
  • a free-standing tower
  • a tongue-tied boy
  • a sun-dried fruit
  • a short-sighted man
  • a long-haired lady
  • a world-famous singer
  • a last-minute solution
  • deep-sea diving
  • a part-time job

Functions: Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification

show lack of understanding Ask for clarification
  • I beg your pardon?
  • I beg your pardon, but I don’t quite understand.
  • I’m not quite sure I know what you mean.
  • I’m not quite sure I follow you.
  • I don’t quite see what you mean.
  • I’m not sure I got your point.
  • Sorry, I didn’t quite hear what you said.
  • Sorry, I didn’t get your point.
  • I don’t quite see what you’re getting at.
  • What do you mean by…?
  • Do you mean…?
  • Could you say that again, please?
  • Could you repeat please?
  • Could you clarify that, please?
  • Would you elaborate on that , please?
  • Could you be more explicit?
  • Could you explain what you mean by…?
  • Could you give us an example?
  • I wonder if you could say that in a different way.
  • Could you put it differently, please?
  • Could you be more specific, please?

Grammar: past perfect

To see this lesson click here: Past Perfect lesson

Writing: Descriptive essay .

A descriptive paragraph or essay is characterized by the use of Adjectives. it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and/or sounds. A good description is a word picture. the reader can imagine the object, place, or person in his or her mind. Here is an example of a Descriptive paragraph .

When I was  two or three years  old, I lived in a  house  that had a  strange,
atmosphere. I do  not remember anything about the house  except the stairway.
It was  dark, squeaking, and quite  narrow, and its  steps were a  little  high for me
to climb  up. From the  bottom of the stairway, it seemed like  an endless  climb
to the  top. Beyond the  darkness at the  top of the stairway, there  was  an
elegant, middle-aged lady leaning against the  wall. I had  to pass  her every time
I went to my room, for my room was  the first room beyond the stairs  on the
second floor. The lady wore a  beautiful dress with a  quiet pattern and  a  tinge
of blue , and her peaceful eyes stared at me every time  I went up the  stairs .As
I carefully climbed up the last step, her eyes became fixed on me. She didn’t
talk, nor did  she  move. She  just stood there and watched me  climb up  the
stairs. one  day I touched her, but she did  not react. Her face did  not change
expression, nor did  she even blink. She just kept staring at me  with her
glittering eyes. Later, we  moved out of the house, and I never saw her again.
Now I know that the  lady was a  mannequin. My aunt, who live d in the
house, used  it for her dress making class .



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