Cultural issues
Cultural issues

Gateway 2 Unit 2: Cultural issues

The vocabulary of the unit

  1. Culture: The arts and other manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively.
  2. Altruism: Selflessness, generosity, and kindness.
  3. Citizenship: The set of rights and duties.
  4. Initiative: The ability or opportunity to act before others do.
  5. Tolerance: The ability to accept and respect the opinions and beliefs of others.
  6. Intolerance: Unwillingness to accept views, beliefs, or behavior that differ from one’s own.
  7. Coexistence: The ability to live together in harmony.
  8. Cooperation: Participating and working together towards the same end or objective.
  9. Equity: Equal treatment to anyone.
  10. Diversity: Showing a great deal of variety; very different.
  11. stereotype: A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or an idea of a particular type of person.

Compound adjectives

Compound adjectives are adjectives made up of two or more words usually with hyphens (-) between them. In general, we put a hyphen between two or more words (before a noun) when we want them to act as a single idea (adjective) that describes something.

  • a well-known writer
  • a brightly-lit room
  • deeply-rooted traditions
  • a good-looking boy
  • a free-standing tower
  • a tongue-tied boy
  • a sun-dried fruit
  • a short-sighted man
  • a long-haired lady
  • a world-famous singer
  • a last-minute solution
  • deep-sea diving
  • a part-time job

Functions: Expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification

show lack of understanding Ask for clarification
  • I beg your pardon?
  • I beg your pardon, but I don’t quite understand.
  • I’m not quite sure I know what you mean.
  • I’m not quite sure I follow you.
  • I don’t quite see what you mean.
  • I’m not sure I got your point.
  • Sorry, I didn’t quite hear what you said.
  • Sorry, I didn’t get your point.
  • I don’t quite see what you’re getting at.
  • What do you mean by…?
  • Do you mean…?
  • Could you say that again, please?
  • Could you repeat, please?
  • Could you clarify that please?
  • Would you elaborate on that, please?
  • Could you be more explicit?
  • Could you explain what you mean by…?
  • Could you give us an example?
  • I wonder if you could say that in a different way.
  • Could you put it differently, please?
  • Could you be more specific, please?


Grammar: past perfect

To see this lesson click here: Past Perfect lesson

Writing: Descriptive essay.

A descriptive paragraph or essay is characterized by the use of Adjectives. it tells how something looks, feels, smells, tastes, and/or sounds. A good description is a word picture; the reader can imagine the object, place, or person in his or her mind. Here is an example of a Descriptive paragraph:

When I was two or three years old, I lived in a house that had a strange, atmosphere. I do not remember anything about the house except the stairway.
It was dark, squeaking, and quite narrow, and its steps were a little high for me
to climb up. From the bottom of the stairway, it seemed like an endless climb
to the top. Beyond the darkness at the top of the stairway, there was an
elegant, middle-aged woman leaning against the wall. I had to pass her every time
I went to my room, for my room was the first room beyond the stairs on the
second floor. The woman wore a beautiful dress with a quiet pattern and a tinge
of blue, and her peaceful eyes stared at me every time I went up the stairs. As
I carefully climbed up the last step, her eyes became fixed on me. She didn’t
talk, nor did she move. She just stood there and watched me climb up the
stairs.One day I touched her, but she did not react. Her face did not change
expression, nor did she even blink. She just kept staring at me with her
glittering eyes. Later, we moved out of the house, and I never saw her again.
Now I know that the woman was a mannequin. My aunt, who lived in the
house used it for her dressmaking class.

Review this unit

Cultural issues and values review


  1. What you have been doing for the sake of students is a really invaluable. Thanks a bunch. Good luck. May you get your master degree. Ameen

  2. I would like to thank you from the bottom of my heart for making it so easier for us to plan our lessons. I wonder if you have ready made tests for back 2 for the first and second term.

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