Cultural issues and values review

Cultural issues and values review

These exercises are meant to be Unit Cultural issues and values review, which is part of Gateway 2 English 2 textbook. They deal with vocabulary, reading, grammar, communication and writing. Just go to the section you like and do the exercises.

1Reading

Culture, in anthropology, the patterns of behaviour and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Culture distinguishes one human group from others. It also distinguishes humans from other animals. A people‘s culture embraces their beliefs, rules of behaviour, language, rituals, art, and technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economic systems. Culture is the most important concept in anthropology (the study of all aspects of human life, past and present). Anthropologists commonly use the term culture to refer to a society or group in which many or all people live and think in the same ways. Likewise, any group of people who share a common culture—and in particular, common rules of behaviour and a basic form of social organization—constitutes a society. Thus, the terms culture and society are somewhat interchangeable.
Rapid changes in technology in the last several decades have changed the nature of culture and cultural exchange. People around the world can make economic transactions and transmit information to each other almost instantaneously through the use of computers and satellite communications. Governments and corporations have gained vast amounts of political power through military might and economic influence. Corporations have also created a form of global culture based on worldwide commercial markets.
Local culture and social structure are now shaped by large and powerful commercial interests in ways that earlier anthropologist could not have imagined. Early anthropologists thought of societies and their cultures as fully independent systems. But today, many nations are multicultural societies, composed of numerous smaller subcultures. Cultures also cross national boundaries; for instance, people around the world now know a variety of English words and have contact with American cultural exports such as brand-name clothing and technological products, films and music, and mass-produced foods.
Many anthropologists have become interested in how dominant societies can shape the culture of less powerful societies, a process some researchers call cultural hegemony. Today, many anthropologists openly oppose efforts by dominant world powers, such as the U.S. government and large corporations, to make unique smaller societies adopt Western commercial culture.

A. Answer the following questions
1. What is meant by culture?………………………………………………….
2. How do governments and corporations achieve power?………………………………………………………………
3. What is the result of the use of technology in transmitting culture?
………………………………………………………………….
4. In what way do cultures influence each other?
……………………………………………………..

B. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Justify your answer.
1. Culture is a characteristic of people as well as animals.
……………………………………
2. Modern improvements contribute to the fast transmission of culture
…………………………………..
3. Today culture manages to cross social boundaries
………………………………….

C. Give synonyms to the following words
1. embraces: ………………..
2. Instantaneously: ………………

D. What is the main idea of the text?
…………………………………..

2Vocabulary

A. Replace the underlined expression with appropriate compound adjectives.
1. Most traditional pieces of jewellery are made by hand.
Most traditional pieces of jewellery are ……………………..
2. My cousin lives in Paris; he has his own business there.
My cousin is ……………………………..
3. My father gets angry very quickly.
My father is …………………………………………….person.

B. Add the items in the list B to the items in the list A to form compound adjectives.

A
  1. kind-………
  2. good-……..
  3. well-……..
  4. brand-…….
  1. brightly-………
  2. labor-………
  3. easy-………
  4. part-………
  1. old-………
  2. left-………
  3. second-………
  4. well-………
  1. deeply-………
  2. short-………
  3. five-………
B a-rooted, b-looking, c -going, d-fashioned, e-handed, f-known, g-sighted, h- lit, i-saving, j-hearted, k-hand, l-new, m-star, n-time, o- paid

 

C. Fill in the blanks with suitable compound adjectives from the list B.
1. In our culture, some of the customs and traditions are ……………..…..
2. My brother cannot read the newspaper. He‘s ………………………..
3. Mr Krimmo still has that …………………………………. car. I don‘t think he will get rid of it.
4. ……………………………………..machines are necessary for working women.
5. We usually study in ……………………………………………… places.
6. We stayed in a ……………………………………….. hotel.
7. My father has just bought a ………………….………..………..car.
8. That market sells …………………………..…….. clothes and machines.
9. Salwa has got a …………………….……job. She works three hours a day on Monday and Saturday.
10. My friend is…………………………………….. He can buy an expensive car.

D. Write sentences with compound adjectives.
1 ……………………………………………………………………………………
2 ………………………………………………………………………………

3Grammar

A. The Past Perfect
1. Form: ………………………………………….
2. Use: ………………………………………………………
3. Example:…………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. The past perfect simple is used with the following time expressions:
………………………….

B. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple past or past perfect
1. I ………………………. (worry) a lot about her before I ……………….. (hear) that she was safe.
2. She ……………. ……………….. (just /fold) the pink apron and placed it in a table drawer when
the door …………………………… (open) and Joe ………………. (enter).
3. The police wanted to know why he …………………………….. (bring) a gun to school.
4. After he ………………………………. (work) at the hospital for two years he ………….. (decide)
to give up the job.
5.When I ………………………. (arrive) at the party John ……………. ……….. (already/ go) home.
6. I ……………………………….. (buy) a new camera before I …………………. (go) to London.
7. Adnan wondered why I …………………………………………. (not / visit) him before.
8. She ………………………………….. (just / go) out when I called her.

C. The past perfect continuous:
1.Form: …………………………..
2.Use: – ………………………….
3.Examples:
The doctor arrived at 6 o‘clock. I had been waiting since 3:00
They had been looking for a house for six months before they found one.
Rick‘s eyes were red because she had been crying all the afternoon.
4.The past perfect continuous is used with the following time expressions: …………………………………..

D. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form ( past perfect simple or continuous)
1. Sara was exhausted. She (wash) ………………..……..the dishes for more than three hours.
2. We (walk) ………………………….for several hours before we reached the summit of the mountain.
3. Mary decided to buy a new watch with the money her father (give)…………………her for her birthday.
4. Saliha (watch) …………………………………..her favourite TV program when the light went off.
5. The children( already/go)……………………………….to bed when their mother came from work.

E. Write sentences that contain past perfect simple and past perfect continuous.
1. ……………………………………………
2. ……………………………………………
3. ……………………………………………

4COMMUNICATION

B. Read the dialogue and fill in the table with appropriate expressions
Samir: Good morning, Mr. Taylor!
Mr.Taylor: Good morning. Please have a seat. Can I help you?
Samir: Yes, Mr.Taylor. I‘d like to talk to you about an embarrassing experience I had this weekend.
Mr Taylor: An embarrassing experience? What do you mean?
Samir: Well, I was invited by a friend of mine for dinner. His family was really nice and hospitable. But then something happened which made them stare at me.
Mr. Taylor: stare at you? I don‘t quite follow you. Could you be more explicit?
Samir: Well, actually, they didn‘t seem to like my burping.
Mr.Taylor: Oh my dear, do you mean you burped during the meal? That‘s culturally inappropriate.
Samir: What do you mean by culturally inappropriate?
Mr.Taylor: Well, what I‘m trying to say is that what you did is not acceptable in our society. It‘s even sorry to say the word – disgusting.
Samir: Oh dear! But I was taught in my family to thank God whenever I burp.
Mr.Taylor: Really? In that case, all you‘ve got to do is explain the matter to your friend.
Samir: Thanks, Mr.Taylor.
Mr.Taylor: You‘re welcome.

Expressing lack of understanding Asking for clarification
……………………………………………..
……………………………………………
……………………………………………
……………………………………………
……………………………………
……………………………………
…………………………………….
…………………………………….

 

D. Respond to the following situations; make sure you use the expressions in the chart above.

C. Add more expressions to the table.

Situation one Situation two
A: you are a foreigner who wants to know why people take off their shoes when going into the mosque.
B: you explain to him the reason why this should be done.
A: you are an English teacher trying to explain the meaning of a word.
B: you are a student who doesn‘t understand and wants more clarification.
Foreigner::……………………..
You: ……………………..
Teacher:…………………………..
Student: …………………………

 

E. Write your own sentences of expressing lack of understanding and asking for clarification.
…………………………………………………………

5Writing

Cheating is considered as the worst behaviour in school since it has many consequences for students. First, students who cheat never learn or acquire new knowledge and information. This means that they lose the ability to think effectively or creatively. Second, students who cheat get marks that they don‘t deserve. In this way, they can be penalized or even expelled from school. Third, cheaters always depend on others; so, they lose their sense of responsibility and become lazy. This bad habit can develop in all their aspects of life and affect them negatively. To conclude, students should be aware of the negative effects of cheating in order to succeed in both their educational and personal lives

A. Read the paragraph and answer the following questions:
1. What is the topic sentence?………………………………………….
2. What are the supporting sentences?…………………………
3. What is the concluding sentence?………………………………

B. Complete the following paragraph
Dropping out from school is a big phenomenon that has many causes. ……………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………….
………………………………………………………… To sum up, in order to help students
continue their studies, their families, government and associations should cooperate to stop this problem.

C. Write a paragraph about the causes of illiteracy, the following ideas can help you
o Poverty (not being able to afford school materials….etc)
o Lack of schools, teachers…..etc
o Lack of means of transportation (in the countryside)
o Dropping out from school
o Parents‘ mentality

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