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Independent and dependent clauses

Independent and dependent clauses

Independent and dependent clauses

Written language consists of a clause and sentence. A clause is made up of at least a subject, and verb. Sometimes it can have a subject + a verb + a complement.

Clauses Not clauses
✓ Reading is my hobby
✓ So he came late
To have good grades
before going to school


There are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent

Independent clauses

Independent clauses have a subject, a verb and often a complement. They express a complete idea or thought. They can stand by themselves as a sentence.

An independent clause = A simple sentence

am feeling
well today

Dependent clauses

Dependent clauses do not form a sentence by themselves and do not express a complete idea or thought. They begin with a subordinator like although, where, if, so, because, until, etc.

A dependent clause = An incomplete sentence

Dependent clause are formed by a subordinator + a subject + a verb + (a complement).

Subordinator Subject Verb (Complement)
……. whom
am feeling

Here are some of the most frequent subordinators. Form more see these two lessons: Linking words and Advanced linking words.

Subordinators: After – although – as – just as – as if – as soon as – because – before – even though – how – if – since – so that – unless – whenever – whether – whom – whose…..


Decide which of these clauses are independent or dependent. Write Indep next to the completed sentences and Dep next to the incomplete sentences. paste your answers in the comment section below to get the correction.

_Indep_  1. Television has advantages as well as disadvantages.
_Dep___ 2. because he drove fast.
_______ 3. Since women gain more independence and power.
_______ 4. Water boils at 100-degree centigrade.
_______ 5. even though cats are lovely pets.
_______ 6. which is simply the
_______ 7. Astronomers May Have Witnessed A Star Giving Birth To A Black Hole.
_______ 8. skipping the supernova phase and going straight into a black hole.
_______ 9. When watching movies at night by yourself.
_______ 10. Also, globalisation has opened new markets.
_______ 11. Language is the main means of communication among people.
_______ 12. Although television sometimes helps to spread wrong ideas about     cultures
_______ 13. fertile lands become desert with deforestation
_______ 14. whom the voters elected during the last presidential elections in the USA.


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