National Exam Humanities 2018 July Answers
 When she was born prematurely, Maryamah was just 1.2 kilograms. Now, she is still
underweight. She’s one of hundreds of premature babies born in Indonesia benefiting from the work of professor Koestor who is building incubators and lending them for free to low-income families.
 The World Health Organization (WHO) says that premature birth complications are the main cause of death among children under five. Babies who are born early need incubators to keep them warm and protect them from infections. But getting access to these life-saving devices is a huge challenge for millions of people living in poverty in Indonesia.
 Koestor, who works at the University of Indonesia, started his lending scheme in 2012 using his technical expertise to build ultra-light, portable incubators. His interest in incubators began when he fixed one of the devices for a pediatrician and then learned how to construct them himself. To fund his scheme, he looked for individuals willing to donate about $260 each, the cost of making one incubator.
[ 4] People requiring an incubator send a text message to a special number and a volunteer brings one for them. The service began in the capital Jakarta, and has now expanded to an additional 48 cities and will be extended to 300 cities. Koestor has so far built 180 incubators that have helped about 1500 babies. ”Our success ratio is 100 percent; the 1500 babies ·are all alive and healthy,” he said.
 The scheme has proved invaluable for Maryamah and her parents. Maryamah’s mother underwent a caesarean section in February when she was almost eight months pregnant due to high blood pressure. After seven weeks, when the baby was still 1.5 kilos, doctors said Maryamah could no longer stay in the hospital as her condition had stabilized. ”We were slowly recovering from the shock of having a premature baby, but then we had another problem: how to take care of l1er at home,” the father said.
[ 6] After asking around, the father found about the incubator lending service from a friend. ”I sent a text message and the response was very fast. After a few minutes the operator got in touch with me and said that the incubator can be picked up as soon as the baby is at home,” he said. Maryamah now weighs 2.4 kilograms and although she still spends a lot of time in the incubator, her parents now feel safe talking her out and playing with her.