Ticket 2 English Unit 4: Sustainable Development

Sustainable development
Sustainable development

 Ticket 2 English Unit 4: Sustainable Development

Vocabulary related to the Unit

According to Wikipedia :

Sustainable development is a road-map, an action plan, for achieving sustainability in any activity that uses resources and where immediate and intergenerational replication is demanded. As such, sustainable development is the organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs of future generations of life on the planet. It is a process that envisions a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use continue to meet human needs without undermining the “integrity, stability and beauty” of natural biotic systems.

Sustainable development consists of:

  • Social issues :
    Health care / social justice
    Poverty elimination
    Property rights / equal pay for women
  • Economic issues :
    Raw materials
    Climate change
    Micro enterprise
    Transport infrastructure
  • Environment issues:
    Climate change /ecological crisis
    Water pollution/forest preservation
    Recycling waste/energy preservation

collocation : ‎
A collocation is a pair of words that generally ‎goes or occurs together. Here are some that are related to‎ sustainable development :

Civil society
Non‏-‏governmental organization
Sustainable development
Renewable energy
Urban areas

Functions: expressing cause and effect

cause (Y) effect (X)
The cause of/the reason for …(x)…. is…(y)….‎
‎…(x)… is / are caused by /due to …..(y)‎
  • the result/effect/consequence of…(y)… is…(x)…
  • Consequently
  • As a result ,
  • As a consequence ,
  • So ,  
……(Y)………. ……(X)……….

Examples :

The cause of her good grades is her hard work.

her good grades are due to her hard work.

The result of her hard work is her good grades.

She worked hard, as a result she had good grades.

Grammar: The future perfect

1- Form :

[ will have + verb ( past participle ) ]
2- Examples :

Affirmative :You will have finished your school year by the end of July.
Interrogative: will You have finished your school year by the end of July ?
Negative : You will not have finished your school year by the end of July
3- Use :
The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future. It is generally used with expressions like : By , by then , by that time , by the 24th , by 2023


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