Ticket 2 English Unit 10: Brain Drain

brain drain


 Ticket 2 English Unit 10: Brain Drain

According to  Merriam-Webster Dictionary :

Brain Drain is the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living conditions

Causes of brain drain
Push factors Pull factors
• Low wages and income ‎
• Unsatisfactory living conditions ‎
• Lack of research and other facilities including ‎support staff
• Declining quality of educational system ‎
• Social unrest, political conflicts and wars ‎
• Discrimination in appointments and promotions
• Lack of satisfactory working conditions ‎
• Higher wages and salaries ‎
• Substantial funds for research, advanced ‎technology, modern facilities ‎
• Political stability ‎
• Better working conditions ‎
• Intellectual freedom ‎
Words Definition
Brain drain The emigration of educated professionals to other countries
physician A person who practices medicine
physicist An expert in physics
scholar An educated person who has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
Income Revenue
gain Obtain something needed or wanted
underdeveloped Not yet fully developed
Skilled Having the ability to perform a task expertly and well
unskilled Not having a special skill or training
tempting Highly attractive
Prefixes meaning Examples
  1. inter
  2. extra
  3. intra
  4. under
  5. over
  6. super
  7. hyper
  1. Between , among
  2. Outside , beyond
  3. Within , inside
  4. Less than , insufficient
  5. Excessively , more than
  6. Above , over , beyond
  7. Above , over , excessive
  1. intercontinental
  2. extraterrestrial
  3. intercellular
  4. underpaid
  5. overpopulated
  6. supersonic
  7. hypersensitive


  • Brain drain
  • Low pay
  • Attract attention
  • Developed countries
  • High technology
  • Skilled workers

Functions: expressing regret

A regret can be about something in present or in past.

If it is in present then we use the rule of:   present wish or conditional 2

If it is in past then we use the rule of     :   past wish or conditional 3


1 ) Present regret
Present situation Regret in present
  • I don’t know how to use computer .
  • I regret not knowing How to use computer
  • If only I knew how to use computer
  • I wish I knew how to use computer
 2 ) Past regret
Past situation Regret in past
  • I didn’t know how to use computer
  • I regret not knowing How to use computer
  • If only I had known how to use computer
  • I wish I had known how to use computer



Grammar: Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses ‎

  • Both Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses begin with WH-words (who , which , whose ……..)‎
  • Restrictive clauses: are not set off by commas , they are dependent , very important and limit the meaning .‎
  • Non restrictive clauses: are set off by commas , they are independent , not very important to the meaning

Who = used for persons
Which = preferences ‎
Whose = possession ‎
That = people, animals and things‎

‎ Examples :

She has a son who is a doctor.‎
‎ She lives in a city, which she likes a lot ‎
‎ That boy ,whose jeans are blue, is my friend ‎
‎ I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen



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