Ticket 2 English Unit 10: Brain Drain

brain drain

 Ticket 2 English Unit 10: Brain Drain

According to  Merriam-Webster Dictionary :

Brain Drain is the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living conditions

1- Vocabulary

Causes of brain drain

Push factors (reasons that are in their countries of origins) ‎

  • Unsatisfactory living conditions ‎
  • Lack of research and other facilities including ‎support staff
  • Declining quality of the educational system ‎
  • Social unrest, political conflicts and wars ‎
  • Discrimination in appointments and promotions
  • Lack of satisfactory working conditions ‎
  • Low wages and income

Pull factors (reasons that are in the host countries)

  • Higher wages and salaries ‎
  • Substantial funds for research, advanced ‎technology, modern facilities ‎
  • Political stability ‎
  • Better working conditions ‎
  • Intellectual freedom ‎

Other Vocabulary related to the unit

  • Brain drain: The emigration of educated professionals to other countries
  • Physician: A person who practices medicine
  • Physicist: An expert in physics
  • Scholar: An educated person who has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
  • Income: Revenue
  • Gain: Obtain something needed or wanted
  • Underdeveloped: Not yet fully developed
  • Skilled: Having the ability to perform a task expertly and well
  • Unskilled: Not having a special skill or training
  • Tempting: Highly attractive


  • inter: Between, among (intercontinental)
  • extra: Outside, beyond (extraterrestrial)
  • intra: Within, inside (intracellular)
  • under: Less than, insufficient (underpaid)
  • over: Excessively, more than (overpopulated)
  • super: Above, over, beyond (supersonic)
  • hyper: Above, over, excessive (hypersensitive)


  • Brain drain
  • Low pay
  • Attract attention
  • Developed countries
  • High technology
  • Skilled workers
  • Job opportunities
  • Host countries
  • Human resources

2- Functions: expressing regret

A regret can be about something in present or in past.

If it is in present then we use the rule of: present wish or conditional 2

If it is in past then we use the rule of: past wish or conditional 3

Present regret

Present situationRegret in present
  • I don’t know how to use computer .
  • I regret not knowing How to use computer
  • If only I knew how to use computer
  • I wish I knew how to use computer

Past Regret

Past situationRegret in past
  • I didn’t know how to use computer
  • I regret not knowing How to use computer
  • If only I had known how to use computer
  • I wish I had known how to use computer


Grammar: Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses ‎

  • Both Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses begin with WH-words (who , which , whose ……..)‎
  • Restrictive clauses: are not set off by commas , they are dependent , very important and limit the meaning .‎
  • Non restrictive clauses: are set off by commas , they are independent , not very important to the meaning

Who = used for persons
Which = preferences ‎
Whose = possession ‎
That = people, animals and things‎

‎ Examples :

  • She has a son who is a doctor.‎
  • She lives in a city, which she likes a lot.
  • ‎That boy, whose jeans are blue, is my friend.‎
  • I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.



  1. hello sir i really appreciate your help thank you so much . Allah Bless you.
    but please i didn’t find unit 9 ?

  2. Many thanks brother Nabil, a lot of success!

  3. Thank you very much Mr. Sbaybi for this valuable website.

  4. Thank you very much Mr. Sbaybi for these valuable website.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.