Unit Advances in Science and Technology Review

Unit Advances in Science and Technology Review

These exercises are meant to be Unit Advances in Science and Technology Review, which is part of Gateway 2 English 2 textbook. They deal with vocabulary, reading, grammar, communication and writing. Just go to the section you like and do the exercises. Don’t forget to post your answers in the comment section and get the answers

Reading

Technology deals with human usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects a species‘ ability to control and adapt to its natural environment. The word technology comes from the Greek technologia ─ téchnё, ‗craft‘ and –logia- the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. A strict definition is elusive and vague; technology can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, but can also comprise different themes, including systems, methods of organisation, and techniques. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include ―construction technology,‖ ―medical technology‖, or ―state-of-the-art technology‖.
The human species‘ use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The pre-historical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food, and the invention of the wheel* helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing
destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today‘s global economy) and has allowed the rise of a prosperous and wealthy class. Many technological processes produce unwanted byproducts, such as pollution and the exhausting and diminishing of natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Advances in technology often raise new and controversial moral questions
because technology implementation influences and changes the values of society. For instance, people value more material success than the spiritual one.
Debates have arisen over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Some movements criticise the role of technology in the modern world, arguing that it harms the environment and isolates people; others view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human
condition.

A. What is the writer‟s attitude? Tick the right answer.
a. The writer is in favour of technology.
b. The writer is against technology.
c. The writer is neutral

B. Are these sentences true or false? Justify
1. We can give an exact definition of the term “technology”
…………………………………………………….
2. People in the past also made use of technology.
……………………………………………………
3. Technology has not always been used for human prosperity and security.
………………………………………………..

C. Answer these questions.
1. Which specific invention allowed human beings to move more easily?
…………………………………………….
2. What example does the writer give to show the impact of technology on social values?
…………………………………………….

D. Fill in each blank with a word or an expression from the text
1. Thanks to the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, people can ……….…… more easily.
2. Pollution and depletion of natural resources are two consequences of …………………

E. Pick out from the text expressions or phrases which show that:
1. Technology has permitted some groups to become rich
…………………………………………
2. Not all the people agree about the role of technology
………………………………………….

F. Find in the text words or expressions which mean the same as:
1. unclear ( parag 1): ………………………..
2. reduced ( parag 2): …………………..
3. useful and advantageous ( parag 4): ………………………..

G. What do the underlined words in the text refer to?
1. The term ……………………. 2. others ……………………………

H. Fill in the blanks with one of the words from the list.
a. Pre-paid – b. information – c. access – d. networking – e. addicted – f. scientific

1. A large number of people are computer …………………they spend too much time on the internet.
2. The …………………….option can be more economical for cell phone users.
3. ………………..…technology can be a valuable means of development.
4. The internet is an efficient way of………………………at the international level.
5. More sophisticated technologies are necessary for………………………experiments.
6. Easy………………………to the internet may back up our present educational system.

Grammar

A. Put the verbs in parentheses into the right form.
1.Next week that football player (play)…………………………………….with our team for six years.
2.By 2030, our population (increase)………………………………….enormously.
3.By the beginning of June, my father (return)……………………………..to France.
4.Students (hand in)…………………………………………….their answer sheets by 6:05 p.m.
5.Scientists (possibly/develop)………………………………..a new vaccine for AIDS in ten years time

B.  Write sentences using future perfect simple.
1. …………………………………….
2. …………………………………….
3. ……………………………………..

Communication

Yousra: In your opinion, which is the most significant breakthrough in technology?
John: In my opinion, the internet is the most significant one. I really can‘t do without it…..

……………………………………………….

A. Read the following examples and fill in the chart with the expressions of asking for and giving an opinion.

• I think televised violence affects children negatively.
• Do you think televised violence affects children negatively?
• What do you think about cloning?
• In my opinion, you have to be crazy to go skydiving!
• How do you feel about school uniforms?
• I don’t think most children are influenced by televised violence.
• I feel human cloning is wrong.
• What’s your opinion of people who go bungee jumping?
• If you ask me, school uniforms are sometimes a good idea.

Asking for opinion Giving opinion
………………………..
………………………..
……………………….
…………………………
……………………………
……………………………
……………………………
……………………………

 

B. Add more expressions to the chart.

C.  Discuss the following points with your partner. Use the expressions above (A asks for opinion, B gives opinion)
1_ You can‘t have a happy family life and a successful career at the same time.
A-……………………………………………….
B-…………………………………………………..
2_ We are becoming too dependent on computers.
A-………………………………
B-………………………………
3_ You will be happier if you stay unmarried.
A-…………………………………
B-………………………………….

Writing (Descriptive paragraph)

The format of a descriptive essay.

  • INTRODUCTION: From general to specific
  • PARAGRAPH 1: We describe what we see: sight
  • PARAGRAPH 2: We describe what we hear: Sound
  • PARAGRAPH 3: We describe what we smell: Smelling
  • PARAGRAPH 4: We describe what we taste: Taste
  • PARAGRAPH 5: We describe what we touch: Feeling

A school experience.

Introduction:
Among one of the best souvenirs in life are school experiences which remain engraved in our memory for the rest of our lives. They symbolize innocence, spontaneity, and adventure. This is one of the unforgettable experiences I had when I was in my final year in primary school.
DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE SEE: SIGHT
When I got to school, I could see crowds of students scattered in front the school entrance which looked clean, and some students were accompanied by their parents. There was a big board inside the schoolyard where the lists of the examinees were written. The teachers were grouped in front of the headmaster office and were dressed formally.
DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE HEAR: SOUND
I could hear the sounds of the teachers and the headmaster slamming his office door several times. The students were mostly silent not as usual probably because of the fear of the exam. I could hear a father advising his son what to do and what not to do, but his son did not seem to hear him. He was certainly absorbed in the exam and was just nodding or shaking his head to answer his father.
DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE SMELL: SMELL
When we came into the classrooms, I could smell different perfume the teachers and students were wearing. When our teacher handed the exam papers out, I could not believe my eyes when one of the students folded his exam paper and put it in his school bag. As soon the bell rang, he rushed out looking very happy as though he had done well in the exam. I was really astonished and bewildered.
DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE TASTE: TASTE
It was the break and students were eating the food they had brought with them. I wasn‘t hungry, so I just tasted the sandwich my mother had prepared for me. I didn‘t enjoy eating the food because I was thinking about the second examination.
DESCRIPTION OF WHAT WE TOUCH: FEELING
When we finished the exam and I left. my parents were waiting for me at the school entrance. They asked me how I took my exam, and to my surprise, the classmate who put the exam paper in his pocket came running happily towards me. He took out his exam papers which were blank with no answers on them. He was caressing them with his fingers as if he had been feeling a cat‘s fur and told me that he had been looking forward to such an opportunity to own a typed paper even if it cost him to fail an exam.

B. A descriptive essay often focuses on portraying: a person, a place, a memory, an experience, or an object.

The following adjectives are used in descriptive essays:
SIGHT: big, bright, clean, enormous, fat, high, light, short, small, square, ugly, wide…….
TOUCH: tough, cold, burning, dry, damp, dry, hairy, hot, oily, sandy, wet…
SOUND: loud, soft, silent, screaming, shouting, quiet, noisy, talkative……
TASTE: sweet, sour, bitter, salty, tasty, delicious…..
SMELL: perfumed, burnt, smelly, sweet, smelting………

C. Write about the following topic: Describe a wedding party which you attended

 

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