Unit Brain Drain Review

Unit Brain Drain Review

These exercises are meant to be Unit Brain Drain Review, which is part of Gateway 2 English 2 textbook. They deal with vocabulary, reading, grammar, communication and writing. Just go to the section you like and do the exercises. Don’t forget to post your answers in the comment section and get the answers.

Reading

Brain drain is the departure of educated or talented persons for better pay or jobs elsewhere. The term originated around 1960 when many British scientists and intellectuals immigrated to the United States for a better working climate.
Economically speaking, brain drain means an emigration of trained and talented individuals (“human capital”) to other nations because of conflicts and lack of opportunity. It parallels the term “capital flight” which refers to financial capital that is no longer invested in the country where its owner lived and earned it.
When a highly qualified professional chooses to leave his own country for another, he does so for one or several legitimate political or economic reasons: peace and security for himself and his family, job satisfaction, better pay and conditions, a higher standard of living, etc. Throughout history, countries and centres of academic excellence which offer these attractions have received the largest numbers of professional migrants and these have, in turn, made substantial contributions, not only to the economic growth of their host countries but also to the scientific and technological advancement of humanity. The loss of such big number of skilled immigrants results in huge losses that are very difficult to compensate for even in long years to come. The brain drain is actually affecting the economies and social structures of a country, especially the emerging countries that have to do everything they can to stop this phenomenon.
It is the responsibility of both governments and individuals to try harder to stop the flow of highly skilled people from their own countries resulting in a brain drain that affects each and every society.

A- Are these statements true or false? Justify your answer.

1- Every graduate can leave his/her country
2 – Human capital and financial capital are equal
3 – Brain drainers affect negatively their sending countries and positively their host countries.

B- Answer these questions from the text

1 – What are the causes of Brain drain mentioned in the text?…………………………
2 – How do professional migrants affect their host countries?……………….
3 – In your opinion, how can we stop brain drain?…………….

C- Find in the text words meaning the same as:

Began:…………………………
Beginning to develop: …………………………….

D- What do the underlined words in the text refer to?

It: (parag 2) …………………………………
These: (parag 3) ………………………………………

E- In short, what is meant by brain drain?
………………………………………………

F- There are two types of causes of brain drain:

1. .………………………: the negative factors in the home country that push skilled and educated people to leave their country.
2. .……………………: the positive factors that attract skilled and educated people to another country.

 

G- Fill in the following chart with the appropriate causes of brain Drain, write only numbers.

1. Low wages and salaries 2. Better working conditions 3. Lack of satisfactory working conditions. 5.Social unrest, political conflicts and wars. 6. Higher wages and income 7. Declining quality of educational system 8.Lack of research and other facilities including support staff 9. Sustainable funds for research, advanced technology and modern facilities 10. Discrimination in appointments and promotions 11. Unsatisfactory living conditions 12. Political stability 13. Intellectual freedom

Push factors: …………………………………………………
Pull Factors: …………………………………………………..

H. What are the negative and positive effects of brain drain?

Positive effects ………………………………………
Negative effects ……………………………………

Vocabulary

A. We use expressions of concession to link two contrasting ideas like:

Rachid was ill. Rachid went to school.
We use one of these linking words: …………………………………………

B. Complete the following examples:

1. Although …………………………….. 3. In spite of ………………………………
2. Despite ………………………………… 4. In spite of ………………………………

C. Study the examples above and fill in the chart with the appropriate information.

Although +………………….

despite+….………………..….

In spite of+……………………………

My friend revised his lessons. However, he failed the exam.
My friend revised his lessons. Nevertheless, he failed the exam.
My friend revised his lessons. Yet, he failed the exam

D. Complete the following structure according to the above examples.

Nevertheless………………………………………………..
However……………………………………………………..
Yet…………………………………………………………….

E. Complete the following sentences.

We make mistakes from time to time .……………………. we understand our lessons,
………………………….having worked for many years, jack can‘t buy that nice house.
…………………the increase in oil prices, people continue to travel by car. Money doesn‘t mean happiness……………………….many people are becoming very materialistic.

F. Give example sentences with concession links

  1. ………………………………………………………………..
  2. ………………………………………………………………..
  3. ………………………………………………………………..

Grammar (Relative Pronouns)

A. Complete the following charts with appropriate information.

Relative Pronouns Use Example
1. ……….. ……………………… The man who is sitting there is my teacher
2. ……….. ……………………… – The car which was stolen yesterday was mine.
– They were unsuccessful which was disappointing
3. ………. ……………………. This is the boy whose (his) father is my friend
4. ……… ………………….. The boy whom you told me about got the best grades in English.
5. ……… …………………… – I like the flower that is there.
– I like the student that respects others
6. ……… …………………… The institution where I learn is not far from my house.
7. ……… …………………… There are times when I feel lonely.
8. ……… …………………… This is the reason why you do not
work hard.

 

  • A subject relative pronoun ………………………………………………………………………….

Examples:
– The apple which is lying on the table is sweet.
– The teacher who lives next door is nice.

  • An object relative pronoun ………………………………………………………………………….

Examples:
– The film (which) we watched yesterday was fantastic.
– The writer (who/whom) Rachid met last weekend is very famous.

  • Restrictive (identifying or defining) relative clauses………………………………………………

Example:
– I know the man who is standing there.
– The novelist is someone who writes novels.

  • Object pronouns in these clauses can be omitted (dropped).

The boy (who/ whom) we met yesterday is from New York.

  • Non- restrictive ( non-identifying or non-defining) relative clauses …………………………

Ayman, who is my friend, is the best student in the class.

  • Object relative pronoun cannot be omitted. “That” cannot replace the pronoun in these clauses.

B. Complete the following sentences with appropriate relative pronouns

1.That man ……………. name I forgot is an artist.
2.Have you employed the man………………..I recommended to you last week.
3.The teacher asked me a question……………. was taken from a storybook.
4.Bob bought the car from a man……………… was the owner of the gallery.

C. Combine the sentences using RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Decide whether the relative pronoun is omitted or not.

1.The book was very interesting. I borrowed it from the library yesterday.
………………………………………………………………………………………….
2.The girls are my classmates. We saw them at the cinema.
………………..………………………………………………………………………..
3.Alex took the gun out of his pocket. He saw the robbers running down the street.
………………..………………………………………………………………………..
4.The flowers are still fresh. I picked them up this morning.
…………………………………………………………………………………..
5.This is Mrs Green. Her daughter got married to a drummer.
…………………………………………………………………………………..

D. Join these sentences using suitable RELATIVE PRONOUNS decide whether the relative clause is restrictive or non- restrictive.

1. We have a neighbour. His dog barks a lot.
………………………………………………………………………………
2. I don‘t know most of the people. You invited them to the party.
………………………………………………………………………………
3. My cousin is a journalist. Her job is interesting.
………………………………………………………………………………
4. That‘s the parcel. It came in the mail.
………………………………………………………………………………
5. Do you know the man? I asked him the address.
………………………………………………………………………………

E. Write sentences with relative pronouns.

1. ………………………………..
2. ………………………………..
3. ………………………………..

Communication

A. Read the dialogue and answer the question below:

Student: I‘m terrible at English and I think I should do something about it. What do you advise me to do?
Teacher: I think you should try this website. It‘s a fantastic website for beginners.
Student: I‘ve heard about it, but what do you think I should start with?
Teacher: You‘d better start with the lessons, then the exercise.

 – What is the students‟ problem?
……………………………………………………………………………………………….

B- Read the dialogue again and underline the expressions of asking and giving advice.

C- Put these expressions in the appropriate columns:

1-What do you advise me to do? 2- What do you think I should start with? 3- I think you should try this. 4- What‘s your advice? 5- If I were you, I would …. 6- have you thought about….? 7- What should I do? 8- I advise you to…. 9- you should/ought to. 10- if you were me, what would you do?

Asking for advice: ………………………………………………………..

Giving advice: ……………………………………………………………

D. What can you say to the following people? Give your advice using the expressions of giving advice

Ali: I still have problems with my English.
You: ………………………………………………………………………
Bouchra: I spend all my time using Facebook.
You: ……………………………………………………………………..

E. Work in pairs and write a dialogue where student “A‟ asks for advice and student “B‟ gives advice:

Student A: ……………………………………………
Student A: ……………………………………………

Writing

A.
INTRODUCTION: From general to specific
PARAGRAPH 1: CAUSE 1 and its details
PARAGRAPH 2: CAUSE 2 and its details
PARAGRAPH 3: CAUSE 3 and its details
CONCLUSION: We sum up the points discussed in paragraph 1, 2, and 3 and we give our opinion.

B. Sample: Why do children drop out of school?

Education plays a very important role in people‘s lives. It enhances their self-esteem, their ability to learn new things which will help them expand their knowledge, and the ability to cope with the majority of the society. It makes them informed so that they can understand issues, represent themselves, and take responsibility. However, a lot of children are deprived of this fundamental right by dropping out of school due to several reasons.
The distance between school and home can be a cause for refraining from school. Children have to walk more than 10 kilometres four times every day in order to get to school and as they can‘t afford to buy even a bike which may facilitate this remoteness. Besides, in bad weather conditions, the roads get muddy and when rivers flood, they get cut off several days.

Furthermore, Poverty can push students to give up studying since they can‘t pay school fees. As parents don‘t have enough money to buy school stuff which have become costly nowadays, they force their children to leave school especially when they are too many.

Family problems can also be an obstacle for children to drop out of school. Parents‘
misunderstandings affect children‘s schooling. For instance, when children grow up in a family where the mother is beaten up by the father, or where this latter is a drug addict, or where their parents are divorced, how can they concentrate at school?

All in all, Remoteness from school, poverty, and family problems are among the reasons why students drop out of school. Therefore, we should collaborate together so as to help these children benefit from their basic education right and become productive citizens.

C. Complete this plan with appropriate information from the text

 INTRODUCTION:
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………

 CAUSE 1: ………………………………………………………………………
Details: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 CAUSE 2: ……………….
Details: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 CAUSE 3: ………………………
Details: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 CONCLUSION:
……………………………………

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