gerund and infinitive
gerund and infinitive

Gerund and Infinitive

What is a gerund and what is an infinitive ?

A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding “-ing.” The gerund form of the verb “read” is “reading.” You can use a gerund as the subject or the object of a sentence.

Examples:

   Reading helps you learn English.( subject of  the sentence)

I enjoy reading. (object of the sentence)

The Infinitive is the “to” form of the verb. There are two forms of the infinitive : Bare (without to ) and full infinitive ( with to ). The infinitive form of “learn” is “to learn.” You can also use an infinitive as the subject or the object of a sentence.

Examples:

To learn is important. (subject of sentence)

He wants to learn. (object of sentence)

Expressions and verbs used with the gerund

gerund (VERB + ‘ING’ FORM) : Note: the underlined verbs are used with the full infinitive too.
VERBS
acknowledge – admit – anticipate – appreciate – attempt – avoid – begin – carry on – can’t help/resist/stand – look forward to – cease – celebrate – complete – confess – consider – delay – deny – detest – discuss – dislike – endure – enjoy –
fancy – feel like – finish – forget – give up – go – go on – hate – imagine – include – intend – involve – it’s worth – keep (= continue) – like – love – mention – (don’t)mind – miss – neglect – postpone – practice – prefer – quit – recall – recollect
recommend – regret – remember – resent – resist – risk – spend – start stop – suggest – tolerate – understand – waste time
– spend time – be/get used towatch

Examples :

  • the doctor advised him to avoid eating junk food
  • you need to carry on working if you want to get good grades
  • tome gave up smoking 15 years ago.
  • she hates watching horror films
The gerund is used similarly after the following expressions
It’s no use … / It’s no good … / There’s no point in …/ What’s the use of …? / To be busy … /Don’t mind … / It’s (not) worth …/ Have difficulty in … / To be accustomed to …

Examples :

  • it’s no use crying over spilled milk.
  • tom is busy looking for a job these days

Expressions and verbs used with the Full infinitive ( to+verbs)

full infinitive: VERB + TO + INFINITIVE .Note: the underlined verbs are used with the gerund too.
VERBS adjectives
afford – agree – appear – arrange – attempt – beg – begin – care – cease – choose – claim – consent – decide
demand – deserve – fail – forget – happen – hate help – hesitate – hope – intend – learn – like love – manage – mean
need – neglect – offer – plan – prepare – prefer – pretend – promise – propose – refuse – remember – resist – seem – start
stop – struggle – swear – threaten – try – volunteer – wait – want – wish – would hate/like/love/prefer – be allowed to
nice – glad – sorry – happy – willing – pleased – angry – afraid – ashamed – annoyed

The Full infinitive is also used after the WH-words and after ( the first , the second , the third…)

examples

  • the teacher agreed to postpone our test
  • I wish to have / to get a good mark in my exam
  • it’s nice to see you
  • the mother is annoyed to see her son careless .
  • “I don’t know which choice to make”  said the girl to her mother
  • “the first to get a good mark is going to have a gift”  said the teacher to his students
Verb + object + full infinitive
 advise – allow – ask – beg – cause – challenge – command – convince – dare – enable – encourage – expect-forbid – force – help – hire – instruct – invite – need – order – permit – persuade – recommend – remind – require – teach-tell – urge – want – warn – wish – would like – would love – would hate – would prefer

examples :

  • I want you to come with me.
  • The teacher advised us to revise well.

Expressions and verbs used with the bare infinitive (verbs)

bare infinitive ( verb)
can/could – shall/should – will/would – may/might – have to – must – had better – help – hear – let – let’s – make – would rather/sooner , rather than/ – used to – watch

examples :

  • They can speak English
  • let’s revise our lessons
  • you had better play some sports before you get fat .

Expressions and verbs used with the Full infinitive ( to+verbs) or the gerund

full infinitive / gerund
attempt – begin – cease – forget – hate – intend – like – love – neglect – prefer recommend – remember – start – stop – watch

Examples :

  • Tom stopped to smoke/smoking 15 years ago
  • she hates watching/to watch horror films

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