Gateway 2 unit 8 : Brain drain

brain drain

Gateway 2 unit 8: Brain drain

Target vocabulary

According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary :

Brain Drain isthe departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living conditions

Causes of brain drain
Push factors Pull factors
• Low wages and income ‎
• Unsatisfactory living conditions ‎
• Lack of research and other facilities including ‎support staff
• Declining quality of educational system ‎
• Social unrest, political conflicts and wars ‎
• Discrimination in appointments and promotions
• Lack of satisfactory working conditions ‎
• Higher wages and salaries ‎
• Substantial funds for research, advanced ‎technology, modern facilities ‎
• Political stability ‎
• Better working conditions ‎
• Intellectual freedom ‎
Words Definition
Brain drain The emigration of educated professionals to other countries
physician A person who practices medicine
physicist An expert in physics
scholar An educated person who has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
Income Revenue
gain Obtain something needed or wanted
underdeveloped Not yet fully developed
Skilled Having the ability to perform a task expertly and well
unskilled Not having a special skill or training
tempting Highly attractive


Prefixes meaning Examples
  1. inter
  2. extra
  3. intra
  4. under
  5. over
  6. super
  7. hyper
  1. Between , among
  2. Outside , beyond
  3. Within , inside
  4. Less than , insufficient
  5. Excessively , more than
  6. Above , over , beyond
  7. Above , over , excessive
  1. intercontinental
  2. extraterrestrial
  3. intercellular
  4. underpaid
  5. overpopulated
  6. supersonic
  7. hypersensitive
  • Brain drain
  • Low pay
  • Attract attention
  • Developed countries
  • High technology
  • Skilled workers

Expressing concession

Expressions of concession Examples
• Although – though
• However – yet – nevertheless ‎
• Despite – in spite of + verb ‎‎(ing)‎
• Although women’s situation have improved , it still needs more ‎
• Many girls can attend school , yet their situation is far from perfect
• In spite of being blind , Helen Keller wrote famous novels ‎

Functions :ask for and give advice

Ask for advice Give advice
• what do you advise me to ?‎
• what do you think I should do ?‎
• what do you suggest to …‎
• what would you do in this situation
• what should I do to …..‎
  • may be / I think you should ……
  • If + subject +(simple past)+subject + would + (infinitive)
  • You should/ought to

Grammar : Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses ‎

  • Both Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses begin with WH-words (who , which, whose……..)‎
  • Restrictive clauses: are not set off by commas, they are dependent, very important and limit the meaning.‎
  • Non-restrictive clauses: are set off by commas, they are independent, not very important to the meaning.

Who = refers to a subject
whom = refers to the object of a sentence
Which = it refers to an object (preferences) ‎
when = refers to time
where = refers to place
Whose = refers to possession ‎
That = people, animals and things‎

‎ Examples :

  • a woman teaches us French . the woman has a beautiful car

the woman who/that teaches us french has a beautiful car

  • a bird is on the tree . the bird is singing

the bird which/that is on the tree is singing

  • I met a boy yesterday .the boy is my cousin

the boy whom I met yesterday is my cousin

  • the government helps poor families .their children go to school.

the government helps poor families whose children go to school

  • summer is a season . many people love to go to the beach in summer

summer is a season when people love to go to the beach

  • Morocco is a beautiful country . many tourists love  to spend their holidays in  Morocco

Morocco is a beautiful country where many tourists love  to spend their holidays in

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