Gateway 2 unit 8: Brain drain

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brain drain

Vocabulary

According to  Merriam-Webster Dictionary :

Brain Drain is the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another usually for better pay or living conditions

Causes of brain drain

Push factors (reasons that are in their countries of origins) ‎

  • Unsatisfactory living conditions ‎
  • Lack of research and other facilities including ‎support staff
  • Declining quality of the educational system ‎
  • Social unrest, political conflicts and wars ‎
  • Discrimination in appointments and promotions
  • Lack of satisfactory working conditions ‎
  • Low wages and income

Pull factors (reasons that are in the host countries)

  • Higher wages and salaries ‎
  • Substantial funds for research, advanced ‎technology, modern facilities ‎
  • Political stability ‎
  • Better working conditions ‎
  • Intellectual freedom ‎

Other Vocabulary related to the unit

  • Brain drain: The emigration of educated professionals to other countries
  • Physician: A person who practices medicine
  • Physicist: An expert in physics
  • Scholar: An educated person who has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
  • Income: Revenue
  • Gain: Obtain something needed or wanted
  • Underdeveloped: Not yet fully developed
  • Skilled: Having the ability to perform a task expertly and well
  • Unskilled: Not having a special skill or training
  • Tempting: Highly attractive

Prefixes

  • inter: Between, among (intercontinental)
  • extra: Outside, beyond (extraterrestrial)
  • intra: Within, inside (intracellular)
  • under: Less than, insufficient (underpaid)
  • over: Excessively, more than (overpopulated)
  • super: Above, over, beyond (supersonic)
  • hyper: Above, over, excessive (hypersensitive)

Collocation

  • Brain drain
  • Low pay
  • Attract attention
  • Developed countries
  • High technology
  • Skilled workers
  • Job opportunities
  • Host countries
  • Human resources

Expressing concession

Concession is when we have two opposing ideas. We can link them in different ways. Here are some expressions of concessions in sentences.

I like to eat fish but not to catch them.
It was raining; but/ yet/ and yet, Ann went out without an umbrella.
Although / Though/ Even though it was raining, Ann went out without an umbrella.
Despite / In spite of the rain, Ann went out without an umbrella.
It was raining; however, / nevertheless,/ nonetheless, Ann went out without an umbrella.

Note:
In spite of/Despite + Gerund or noun
Although + Subject + verb

Functions: Asking for and giving advice

Asking for and giving advice can be done with different methods. This depends on the formality or informality of the position or situation you are in. Here are some sentences that can help you ask for or give advice.

Asking for advice

  • What do you advise me to…….?
  • What should I do?
  • If you were in my situation, What would you do?
  • Do you suggest/have any advice?
  • What’s the best/practical advice for this situation?
  • I just don’t know what to do.
  • How can I……..?
  • What would you advise me to do?
  • What ought I do?
  • What would you do if……?
  • Do you think it’s a good idea if I………?

Giving advice

  • If I were you, I would………..
  • You should…………
  • You’d better (not) + (bare infinitive)………………
  • Why don’t you………..
  • It would be better if you……………..
  • I advise you to…………
  • In your situation, I would…………….
  • Have thought about……………
  • Maybe you should……….

Examples of asking for and giving advice

  • Speaker 1: I suffer from acne. What should I do?
  • Speaker 2: If I were you I would go to a dermatologist.
  • Speaker 1: I want to improve my writing skills, do you suggest any advice?
  • Speaker 2: In your situation, I would read a lot and practice some writing.
  • Speaker 1: I am thinking of leaving Morocco once and for all?
  • Speaker 2: You’d better not do it. There no sweet place like home.

Grammar: Relative Clauses ‎

  • Both Restrictive and non-restrictive clauses begin with WH-words (who , which, whose……..)‎
  • Restrictive clauses: are not set off by commas, they are dependent, very important and limit the meaning.‎
  • Non-restrictive clauses: are set off by commas, they are independent, not very important to the meaning.

Who = refers to a subject
whom = refers to the object of a sentence
Which = it refers to an object (preferences)
That = people, animals, and things‎
when = refers to time.
where = refers to place.
Whose = refers to possession ‎

‎ Examples :

  • A woman teaches us French. The woman has a beautiful car

the woman who/that teaches us french has a beautiful car

  • A bird is on the tree. The bird is singing

The bird which/that is on the tree is singing

  • I met a boy yesterday. The boy was my cousin

The boy whom I met yesterday was my cousin

  • The government helps poor families. Their children go to school.

the government helps poor families whose children go to school

  • Summer is a season. Many people love to go to the beach in summer

Summer is a season when people love to go to the beach

  • Morocco is a beautiful country. Many tourists love  to spend their holidays in  Morocco

Morocco is a beautiful country where many tourists love  to spend their holidays in

Writing: Cause and effect essay

In cause/effect essay you discuss the causes (reasons) for something, effects (results) or both causes and effects.

IIntroduction

Explanation of the issue

IIBody

Paragraph one: Causes
A. 1st cause.
B. 2nd cause.
C. 3rd cause.

Paragraph two: effects
D. First effect.
E. Second effect.
F. Third effect.

III. Conclusion

State a summary of your point of view.

——————————————————————-

I. Introduction
…………. is a serious matter/issue/phenomenon that…………threatens/affects…………….negatively/positively. It is the outcome of different reasons and of course, it has several………. effects too. I am going t shed lights on both causes and consequences of ………………...

II. Body
There are several/numerous/plenty of reasons behind ……..(the subject you are discussing) …... To begin with, ……………(1st cause)………………. Next, ……………(2nd cause)……….. In addition to this, ………………(3rd cause)………….(your subject matter)………….leads to different consequences/results/effects. Firstly…………(1st effect)…………………………. Secondly, ……………..(2nd effect)………..Thirdly, ………………………….(3rd effect)…………………………….

III. Conclusion
As mentioned before, ………..(your subject matter)……….has many effects on ………. Hence there are numbers of measures to be taken urgently. First ………………second…………finally……………………..

Gateway-2-Unit-8-Brain-Drain

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