Gateway 2 unit 9: Sustainable Development

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Sustainable development
Sustainable development

Vocabulary

According to Wikipedia :

Sustainable development is a road-map, an action plan, for achieving sustainability in any activity that uses resources and where immediate and intergenerational replication is demanded. As such, sustainable development is the organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs of future generations of life on the planet. It is a process that envisions a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use continue to meet human needs without undermining the “integrity, stability and beauty” of natural biotic systems.

Sustainable development

  • Social issues :
    Health care / social justice
    Poverty elimination
    Property rights / equal pay for women
  • Economic issues :
    Raw materials
    Climate change
    Micro enterprise
    Transport infrastructure
  • Environment issues :
    Climate change /ecological crisis
    Water pollution/forest preservation
    Recycling waste/energy preservation

 Collocation: ‎
A collocation is a pair of words that generally ‎goes or occurs together .Here are some that are related to ‎Sustainable development :
Civil society
Non‏-‏governmental organization
Sustainable development
Renewable energy
Urban areas

Functions: Expressing Certainty and Uncertainty

Certainty is the state of being sure of or about something. On the other hand, Uncertainty is when you have doubt about something. There are different ways to express Certainty or Uncertainty. Here are some.

How to Express Certainty

  • To be certain about…………
  • To be sure about………….
  • To strongly believe that………..
  • It goes without saying.
  • to be convinced of……………
  • To have no doubt about it.
  • To have no doubt about………
  • Without doubt, ………………….
  • It’s obvious that………….
  • The modal verb ‘Must’ also expresses Certainty.

How to Express Uncertainty

  • To be not certain about………
  • To be not sure about…….
  • To strongly not believe that………
  • To have doubt about…………
  • To doubt that………
  • To be in two minds about ………….
  • The modal verb ‘May and might’ also express Uncertainty.
  • To feel uncertain about………
  • Perhaps.

Examples on how to Express Certainty and Uncertainty

Speaker 1: Sohayb is a hardworking student.
Speaker 2: Yes, I am sure/certain that he will have a good grade. (certainty)

Speaker 1: I strongly believe that our local football team will win the match (certainty)
Speaker 2: With their actual level, I doubt it/I feel uncertain about it. (uncertainty)

Speaker 1: Do you think that Hillary Clinton will be the president of the USA
Speaker 2: I am in two minds about that. (uncertainty)
Speaker 1: Well, it goes without saying that she will win the elections. (certainty)

Grammar: Modal verbs:

This lesson is thoroughly discussed here : Modal Verbs .

Writing: Book/film review

Imagine you have seen a movie or you have read a book which you really liked. And you loved that much to the extent you want to tell everyone about it. What will you tell them about the film/the book you have watched/read?

You will tell them:

  1. The title of the film/book.
  2. The writer/producer
  3. Date of publication (book) or production (film)
  4. Genre of film/book
  5.  Director and actors (film)
  6. Characters (book if it is a novel or play)
  7. Duration  (film)
  8. The story of the film/book
  9. Your evaluation/opinion.

Normally the topic is as follows: Write a review of a film or a book that you have seen or read

…………….(Title of the film)……………… is one of the films that attracted my attention. It was produced by………….. (name of producer)………………. in (date of production)…………..It is a …………(genre e.g. an action / detective / story / drama / humour / thriller / sci-fi / comedy / adventure / western etc.)………………… film. The castings are the famous ……….(names of actors)…………. During (1h30 / 2 hours / 45 minutes etc.) …………….(Name of the film)…………………… evolves around …………. (give a brief summary of the film)……….To sum it up, I really ………………….(you opinion/evaluation)………… because it (justify your opinion)……………..
…………….(Title of the book)……………… is one of the books that attracted my attention. It was written by………….. (name of writer)………………. in (date of production)…………..It is a …………(genre e.g. an action / detective / story / drama / humour / thriller / sci-fi / comedy / adventure etc.)………………… book. The major characters of the book are ……….(names of characters)……………………….…………….(Name of the book)…………………… evolves around ………………. (give a brief summary of the book)…………………….To sum it up, I really ………………….(you opinion/evaluation)………… because it (justify your opinion)……………..
Gateway-2-Unit-09-Sustainable-Development

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